After five years of the June dialogue that are still in dispute, the idea of “Don’t represent me” dominated the political debate at the global level. Each one with peculiarities of the democracies to come about by testing the capacity of resistance in the midst of a crisis that seems to distance the citizen from the institutional policy. This is the place from which arise political movements to the left or to the right in Venezuela or in Hungary, which put in question the democratic model.
It was decades of institutional achievements before we get to the current stage of the recession of democracy to the use of the term political science in America Larry Diamond. Wrote about this topic, which comes up if you’re there, it gains more of a voice with the release of the rupture: the crisis of liberal democracy (the leader), a Spanish sociologist Manuel Castells. In Spain, the author, where since the return to democracy in the 1970s through the Institutional the integration of the political turmoil that dominated in the past few years and peaked with the overthrow of Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy at the beginning of last June.
But what we’re talking about when we mention liberal democracy? Author lists some of the characteristics of: respect for fundamental rights and political rights for citizens; the separation of powers; free and periodic elections; the state is chosen by the people; not to the effect of “strong economic or ideological” in the conduct of public affairs through the encouragement of the political system.
When according to Castells, these principles begin to erode in the scenario of economic crisis, institutional and social, ethical and resignation turns to indignation. Everything which till then had accepted – after all, the vote was given and representation in the thesis in progress – begins to collapse. Can this model of liberal democracy in the voting as the guardian of the statue, if you call the court? To put it in check and be disappointed with its limitations, means that the question of democracy itself?
There are several examples around the world of countries that refused to model: of Hungary Viktor Orban, in which, among other measures, questionable, Prohibition of assistance to migrants; Poland’s law and Justice party, where 27 judges of the Supreme Court were removed compulsorily by the executive at the beginning of this month. But the best example of this, because the symbolism may be the United States which is the leader of the “free world”.
Castells focuses on the election of Donald Trump in 2016 to understand the origins of anger that made us get to this point. Back says: “Burn them asylum in the country”. A nation that presented by the political actors they are if they say different, they criticize the corruption and strong advocacy in the often xenophobic packaged by the fear of terrorism. Against all of what is there, a promise broken.
It is in this matter to the meeting of the Spanish, that the different responses to the crisis of liberal democracy fade. Win the Trump, Brexit in the UK, analysing the French political system. But there are differences some answers may improve the democratic model.
Spain. More associated with the left, Castells highlights the positive impact that happened in Spain with the emergence of the movement 15-M, which occupied the streets of Madrid in 2011 on a student real democracy’. It was from there that came the rule that the party who gave new impetus to the composition of the free-out since then – currently forms the basis of the new prime minister Pedro Sánchez, the traditional PSOE.
Sociologist accuses the left is the classic Spanish (PSOE), over the past decade, the loss of the ability to express people’s interests in addition to the institutional – critique of such a person who accuses Lula of co-opting social movements. “And the great hope for democracy to fall to the partidocracia”, he writes.
In the scenario that the differences between the Socialist Party and really is becoming less and less tangible, the economic crisis was a ploy by the help of the European Central Bank which counterparts often require the reduction of public spending. There was, says Castells, the already existing crisis of political legitimacy has become a social crisis, with high unemployment rates. Void of credibility arose the cry for true democracy.
In the year in which the world is still looking for dialogue than one may have experienced, there are 50 Springs, it is possible to understand the meaning of the events that took to the streets less than ten years? Castells makes a decision such as the most frequent and around May of 1968: the one 2011 full of utopia have featured discussions on human dignity, equality between the Sexes, among the flags “the possibility of a different life, beyond bureaucracy and the market.” Reasons that go beyond the institutional framework and fill it with life, a longing that usually happens to large movements.
Castells answered some of the questions posed by the reality of Brazil, Spain and the European Union:
The Lord believed in the possibility of candidates from parties without a lot of popular action, won in the presidential elections of Brazil and even with the weight of the machinery of the party? Many betting on a gradual decline Jair Jair bolsonaro and Marina Silva, in the course of the campaign.
Machines regional crucial for working people, because they are the basis of nepotism and thus corruption. I think you’re right when you say that Jair bolsonaro will – the economic power of Brazil is not Adventure. However, the policy has its own logic and campaign mob in the full confusion of the economic crisis can cause disaster to the enterprise. The statement of the parties from the Middle led (Fernando Henrique) Cardoso call attention to the danger posed by Jair bolsonaro, I think it may be a decisive factor to stop the crisis of institutions. Today in Brazil the big question is not left or right, yes political parties Democratic (albeit corrupt) against trying to neoautoritária with the support of interest groups, ideological Volunteers International.
Despite all the innovation we can return to power while the left in Spain, the traditional PSOE. The extent of the effect of the presence of the Can the new government of Pedro Sanchez?
There is a new car in Spain, which arises from the movement of 15-m. Not only can arise from the 15-m, as Pedro Sanchez is named inspired in many of the values of this movement. The parliamentary coalition between the PSOE and can already is a feat and it is only through this cooperation can consist of the project of the new reformist democratic Spanish. It all depends on that in the years of the elections that the alliance is able to adopt progressive social policies for the promotion of power through elections. There are explicit convergence between Sánchez and Iglesias (the leader), something similar to what happens in Portugal is the European country that works the best economically and politically at that time. The big problem is still Catalonia, which is difficult to solve due to development head of the Catalan use of this development on the part of the national Spanish representative in the party Ciudadanos which the base of support of the feed the opposition to Catalonia. Sanchez tries to engage in dialogue and reconciliation, but the National make it difficult.
Mr. believe in the possibility of Portugal and Spain, historically don’t have a lot of weight in the European Union to influence the policy of Brussels by denied austerity? How symbolic is the possession of Mario Centeno, Minister of Finance portuguesas, president of the Eurogroup?
Portugal, which indicates that a car without austerity, but with the tightening of fiscal policy, it is more convenient to southern Europe, two years we have more and more respect among colleagues. Sanchez wants to move forward in this direction, but now needs to reform institutions, to end its systemic corruption, PP. Even now, Sanchez managed to form a strategic alliance with Merkel, Macron provide joint humanitarian response to the seriousness of the refugee crisis, and the exacerbation of Italian fascism. In less than a month from the government, Sanchez changed the political climate in Spain, which is the fourth economy in the European Union in Europe. And confrontation with systems neofascistas of Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic, Austria, Italy, bolsonaros’ Europeans. We’re in an emergency situation and Sanchez and Antonio Costa (Portuguese prime minister), along with Merkel Macron, they are the hope of the survival of democratic values in Europe.